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Bandgap states in transition-metal (Sc, Y, Zr, and Nb)-doped
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5.This defect state can be seen in the systems that have two oxidation states, one with no -electrons and the other with one -electron. See, for example, Photoelectron Spectroscopy, 2nd ed, edited by S. Hufner (Springer, Berlin, 1995), p. 180;
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