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Ultrasensitive nanoelectromechanical mass detection
1.M. L. Roukes, Phys. World 14, 25 (2001).
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9.Attogram-scale mass sensing is described in M. L. Roukes, and K. L. Ekinci, U. S. Patent 6,722,200 (20 April 2004).
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12.We assume uniform coverage of the Au atoms. Hence, we are measuring the change in the effective resonator mass, For the doubly clamped beam geometry employed, where is the total resonator mass (see later discussion in the text).
13.K. L. Ekinci, Y. T. Yang, X. M. Huang, and M. L. Roukes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2253 (2002).
14.Following standard practice, the mass noise floor is defined as the added mass that will generate a frequency shift resolvable above the frequency noise floor, i.e., with signal-to-noise ratio∼1.
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16.The thermalization rate between the electrons and the phonons is very short compared to any of the time scales in our experiments.
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18.K. L. Ekinci, Y. T. Yang, and M. L. Roukes, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2682 (2004).
19.There is no loss of generality in this approach. Following standard analysis, the electrical noise from the transducers and subsequent stages in the readout chain can be subsumed into an “effective” voltage noise at the transducer. The VCO separately contributes to the observed frequency noise, but its measured phase noise is negligible in this work.
20.X. M. H. Huang, C. A. Zorman, M. Mehregany, and M. L. Roukes, Nature (London) 421, 496 (2003).
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