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(Color online). Microwave free-space refraction experiment set up in an anechoic chamber. Negative or positive refraction is determined from the direction of the emerging signal with the normal to the surface of refraction.
(Color online). (a) Plot of refracted wave intensity measured at various angles, for TM mode propagation. (b) Similar plot for TE mode. Note the negative and positive refraction observed in different bands. Circles are the theoretically calculated refractive indices corresponding to a zero order Bragg wave, and stars are first-order Bragg wave, both of which match strikingly with the experimental results without any fitting parameters.
(Color online). Band structures of the triangular metallic PC for both TM (dashed lines) and TE (solid lines) propagation modes are presented.
(Color online.). Directions of incident transmitted and refracted wave vectors, and group velocity inside the PC. Positive or negative refraction can be observed depending on whether or
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