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(a) interface of an oxide-free control sample, showing a network of threading dislocations. (b) interface with a thin layer of chemical on , showing stacking faults emanating from the interface. These stacking faults mostly terminate within from the interface, and no network of dislocations is observed.
Optical microscope image of etch pits demonstrates that only a small fraction of dislocations propagate to the surface of ELO layer grown on . The inset is a SEM image, showing elongated pits along the  directions. These elongated pits are associated with the stacking faults.
(a) XTEM image showing the layer that remains after the touchdown of seeds. The perforated layer appears as fragmented patches in the cross-sectional view. (b) Energy-filtering TEM image (oxygen map) confirming the existence of oxygen at the interface.
HRTEM images of (a) on and (b) on . The seeds grow through -wide windows in the layer.
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