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(a) A schematic illustration of the all-epitaxial VCSEL that uses an intracavity phase-shifting mesa. (b) A photograph looking down at the surface of such a VCSEL containing a phase-shifting mesa region, and a electrical confinement region.
Light vs current characteristics measured for the VCSEL of Fig. 1(b). The threshold current density is only , and lasing occurs in the mode confining mesa region. The slope efficiency is low because of current spreading and a nonoptimized upper DBR.
Spectral emission both (a) just below threshold at a current density of , and just above threshold at a current density of . The spectral modes observed at wavelengths longer than are due to the mesa of Fig. 1(b), or region “0” in Fig. 1(a).
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