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Opto-electronic versus electro-optic modulation
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental arrangements. The structures (with their top view shown) reside on a quartz prism substrate as in the Kretschmann configuration with the beams (shaded circles) entering from the substrate side. (a) depicts the process for modulation of the reflected surface-plasmon excitation beam by an array of current carrying gold lines of variable potential difference . The reflected field of a spatially filtered (variable diameter) surface-plasmon excitation beam may be controlled by the action of the selected current carrying gold lines. The reverse process is illustrated in (b), where an amplitude modulated -polarized infrared beam excites the surface plasmons, which in turn induce modulation in the current carrying gold lines. The beam may be scanned in any chosen manner. A common feature of both processes is the feasibility of multiple wavelength excitation and/or modulation.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Modulation of the surface-plasmon excitation by the action of the electron flow through the excitation region, i.e., the process. The profiles shown were recorded in plane perpendicular to the direction of the propagation of the reflected beams. The line profiles are taken through the point of maximum intensity. (a) displays the profile of the reflected excitation beam prior to the current flow. A 4-V potential difference across the gold film (which induces the resistivity of the film to be non-Ohmic) causes the beam profile to undergo a lateral spatial deformation similar to focusing of the beam, shown in (b), which becomes more pronounced for higher voltages (or currents) as shown in (c). For higher voltages, the beam scatters and no well-defined boundary can be observed as shown in (d). For even higher potentials, the beam completely vanishes.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) The Ohmic and non-Ohmic regions for the resistance of the gold foil with a thickness of 29.5 nm. As can be seen from the potential–current measurement, the non-Ohmic region of the film resistance enters at around 0.6 A, and for the current range studied the overall behavior has a higher-order dependence. (b) The frequency dependence of the modulation of the current by the surface-plasmon excitation at . An inverse frequency dependence as shown by the fitted function appears to represent the data well.


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Scitation: Opto-electronic versus electro-optic modulation