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A 50-nm-thick gold stripe on a silicone elastomer substrate is stretched, while the changing electrical resistance of the gold stripe is recorded. is the reference value measured before stretching. The plan-view scanning electron micrograph is taken after the tensile load is released. The cracks are perpendicular to the stretch direction.
Deformation sequence of a metal film on a substrate of Young’s modulus . Note the formation of multiple necks in the film. The right halves of the sample and only part of the substrate thickness are shown. An initial imperfection deep was introduced at the top left corner. Contour colors represent the Mises stress level.
Finite element simulations of metal films on substrates of various Young’s moduli. All films are stretched to rupture. The stiffer the substrate, the larger the rupture strain.
Rupture strain as the function of Young’s modulus of the substrate . Two notch depths are used in the simulations.
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