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Relative process flow for tip–substrate bias voltage (upper trace) and AFM cantilever retraction (positive -lift: upper part of the lower trace; negative -lift: lower part of the trace) as function of time for -lift electrostatic lithography: not to scale. Specific times for the current experiment were: and varied between 0.1 and .
(Color) (a) AFM images of an array (viewed at ) of dots patterned on a thick PS film containing three different processing parameters including voltage increase for every row ( to ), initial voltage ramp increase for every column ( to ), and four different -lift values for every combination of voltage and pulse duration. Top inset shows magnified view of four different -lift values for a voltage ramp to in . Bottom inset shows the dependence of dose voltage on film thickness for a -lift rate of . (b) AFM image of a partial array of dots (viewed at ) patterned on a thick PS film where the initial voltage ramp is held constant at and every row denotes a voltage increase ( to ) and every column denotes an increase in the -lift value . The right line scan shows the section of dots created during the application of for the varying -lift values. The bottom line scan shows the section of dots created by varying the voltage ( to ) while keeping the -lift value constant at .
The dependence of the height of nanostructures on a PS film on the extent of -lift for different bias voltages (filled squares); (filled triangles), and (filled circles). Lines are the linear regression through the data points.
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