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Change in the refractive index modulation of TG as a function of the annealing time at . The grating after annealing at for was defined as the grating at time zero.
FE-SEM images of (a) PG and (b) TG after the HF etching. TG was induced by annealing at for .
XRD pattern of the film with TG annealed at for .
FE-SEM images of (a) the two-dimensional TG and (b) the unirradiated thin film annealed at for . The observations were carried out after the etching.
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