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Schemes of ladder-type atomic system: (a) optical–optical double resonance (OODR) in three-level atomic system; (b) double-resonance-optical pumping (DROP) in five-level atomic system.
Experimental setups for observation of a DROP spectrum and frequency locking using DROP (DCF: dielectric coated filter, AP: Aperture, PD1: photodiode, PD2: InGaAs photodiode).
Comparison of a DROP signal with a OODR signal. (a) The DROP spectrum and the OODR spectrum of the transition of (gray curve: OODR and black curve: DROP). (b) The energy diagram in the transition with a large spontaneous emission rate. (c) The DROP spectrum and the OODR spectrum of the transition of (gray curve: OODR and black curve: DROP). (d) The energy diagram in the cycling transition.
Frequency stabilization by using a DROP. (a) The DROP spectrum and the phase sensitive detection signal of the probe laser without direct modulation. (b) Allan variances for the frequency stabilities of the L1 laser and the L2 laser . The L1 laser is locked on the transition in a line and the L2 laser is locked on the transition .
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