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(Color online) Electrodeposited Cu with high-density growth twins: (a) TEM micrograph of the as-deposited microstructure, (b) length scale (spacing) distribution determined from TEM micrographs for the direction perpendicular to the TBs, and (c) TEM micrograph after straining to , showing the accumulation of dislocations.
(Color online) (a) Engineering tensile stress–strain curves of nano-twinned Cu tested at different strain rates and temperatures, in comparison with that of an UFG Cu tested at , (b) true curves, (c) the normalized work hardening rate at , , where is true stress and true strain. At , and 5 for nano-twinned and UFG Cu, respectively (and and 1 at ). Necking sets in when , such that for UFG Cu the true strain and cannot be evaluated after . Coarse-grained Cu is also included for comparison. The inset illustrates the sustained at high stresses, in contrast with coarse-grained Cu.
TEM micrograph showing the deposition of Shockley (short arrows) and Frank partial dislocations at twin boundaries, after RT deformation of nano-twinned Cu. Also included is a dissociation reaction of a unit dislocation into Frank and Shockley partials: (black dashed arrow) → .
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