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13.See EPAPS Document No.E-APPLAB-85-020448 for a full description of molecular modeling studies, molecular force calculations, beam bending calculations, and control experiments. A direct link to this document may be found in the online article’s HTML reference section. The document may also be reached via the EPAPS homepage (http:∕∕∕pubservs∕epaps.html) or from in the directory∕epaps∕. See the EPAPS homepage for more information.[Supplementary Material]
14.We are aware that the disulfide tether or the underlying gold atoms to which they are attached might be migrating within each cycle.

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An array of microcantilever beams, coated with a self-assembled monolayer of bistable, redox-controllable [3]rotaxane molecules, undergoes controllable and reversible bending when it is exposed to chemical oxidants and reductants. Conversely, beams that are coated with a redox-active but mechanically inert control compound do not display the same bending. A series of control experiments and rational assessments preclude the influence of heat, photothermal effects, and variation as potential mechanisms of beam bending. Along with a simple calculation from a force balance diagram, these observations support the hypothesis that the cumulative nanoscale movements within surface-bound “molecular muscles” can be harnessed to perform larger-scale mechanical work.


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