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(a) Structure of an organic tandem PV cell formed by stacking two hybrid PM-HJ cells in series. Each subcell (front or back, with respect to the incident light direction as indicated) employs a mixed CuPc: layer sandwiched between homogeneous CuPc and layers as the photoactive region, with a PTCBI (front) or BCP (back) layer serving as the EBL. (b) Optical field intensities at (solid line) and (dashed line) calculated as functions of the distance from the cathode in an asymmetric organic tandem cell (B in Table I). (c) Calculated external quantum efficiencies for the front (dashed line) and back (solid line) subcells of cell B. The asymmetric spectral responses from the two subcells result from the placement of the layers within the asymmetric tandem cell structure.
characteristics of the asymmetric organic tandem cell A, in the dark and under various intensities of simulated AM1.5G solar illumination. The open symbols are experimental data, whereas the solid lines are model calculations.
Illumination intensity dependence of the power conversion efficiencies of asymmetric organic tandem cells (A, filled squares; B, open circles; C, filled triangles) under simulated AM1.5G solar illumination, compared with that of the single element CuPc∕ hybrid PM-HJ cell (open inverted triangles). Inset: The fill factor of the tandem and single hybrid PM-HJ cells (see Ref. 13).
Layer thicknesses (in Å) of three asymmetric tandem organic PV cells as well as their predicted performance (short-circuit current density , open-circuit voltage , fill factor , and power conversion efficiency ) and measured efficiency , under 1 sun AM1.5G solar illumination. The charge recombination zone in each tandem cell consists of a 5 Å thick Ag nanocluster layer and a 50 Å thick m-MTDATA doped with 5 mol % -TCNQ. Parameters used in the model area , , , , , and the exciton diffusion length in CuPc, , and PTCBI is , 400 Å, and 30 Å, respectively.
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