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-type doping rules. The terms “anion” and “cation” refer to the host atoms: Cu, In, Ga, and Se.
(a) and related defect formation energies in CIS and CGS under growth conditions favorable for -type doping (point in Fig. 4). The arrows show the Fermi energy where the concentrations of the charged defects are balanced, , and the maximum Fermi energy . The vertical line indicates the self-consistenly calculated equilibrium Fermi energy at . (b) The ensuing defect concentrations under these growth conditions ().
(a) and related defect formation energies under “point ” growth conditions. indicates the Fermi energy where of the donor and the acceptor intersect. (b) The ensuing calculated defect concentrations at .
Phase diagram indicating the stability region of CIS and CGS (gray), and the respective competing phases. The point defines the growth conditions optimal for -type doping.
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