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(Color) The chip-scale atomic magnetometer. (a) Schematic of the magnetic sensor. The components are: 1—VCSEL, 2—optics package including (from bottom to top) a glass spacer, a neutral-density filter, a refractive microlens surrounded by an SU-8 spacer, a quartz waveplate, and a neutral-density filter, vapor cell with transparent ITO heaters above and below it, and 4—photodiode assembly. (b) Photograph of the magnetic sensor. Note the gold wire bonds providing the electrical connections from the base plate to the ITO heaters and the photodiode.
(a) The experimental setup for detecting the magnetic flux density. The dashed arrow indicates that the lock-in amplifier can provide feedback to the local oscillator, allowing the local oscillator to track large changes in magnetic field. The magnetometer is run open loop for the data in Figs. 3 and 4. (b) Energy level diagram (not to scale) of showing the resonant first-order sidebands of the VCSEL.
The lock-in signal is plotted as a function of time as the magnetic flux is stepped in intervals. The lock-in time constant is with a filter roll off . The magnetic flux density during the measurement is nominally .
Power spectral density of the lock-in signal converted to units of magnetic flux density. The lock-in time constant is with a filter roll off .
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