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(a) A thin film of a nanoparticle colloid of gold is created on an offset plate. (b) The film is patterned by liquid embossing. (c) The final, polyimide substrate is brought into contact with the patterned film and transferred by application of pressure. (d) The substrates are separated leaving any material trapped under the raised features of the stamp on the offset substrate, and the patterned film is then cured. (e) A second electrode is formed by spin coating a nanoparticle colloid of gold and curing. (f) The polyimide is under-etched by oxygen plasma releasing the patterned gold film, which can be electrostatically attracted toward the second electrode.
(a) ESEM images (all ) of a patterned nanoparticle gold film on polyimide. The printed structure is a series of squares on a side pinned on one corner with etch holes. (b) of oxygen plasma etching. (c) . (d) , immediately before the under-etch is completed and the squares are released.
(a) ESEM image of released squares (same as those in Fig. 2 rotated 180°). During imaging, the electron beam can be used to charge the squares electrostatically and attract them toward the substrate; squares in various positions are shown. (b) SEM image of the edge of an etch hole. A printed metal film was fully under-etched, removed from the polyimide, and placed on a conductive substrate to allow higher resolution imaging.
(a) Time response of a 5 by 5 array of square zipping actuators with a square wave driving input. The squares were pinned at one corner and had geometry similar to those shown in Fig. 2. (b) Frequency response of a single square zipping actuator ( on a side, same geometry as Fig. 2) to a peak to peak sine wave of varying frequency. The dc component of the reflected light is not shown. (c) Driving field response of a single on a side square zipping actuator to a square wave of increasing field. The actuator shows a similar response at lower frequencies.
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