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High-temperature ferromagnetism in manganese-doped indium–tin oxide films
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

X-ray diffraction pattern of (a) a substrate, (b) with Sn (ITO) film, and (c) 5% Mn–ITO film on a substrate.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

High-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images of 5% Mn–ITO showing no indication of any secondary phase or clustering of Mn ions. In the inset a lower magnification HRXTEM image and the [100] selected area diffraction pattern are shown.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Magnetic hysteresis loops taken at for (a) and on sapphire. (b) Variation of magnetization with the temperature for a thick film of on taken with a field of applied ( is applied parallel to the film plane). The field-cooled data are denoted by squares (∎) whereas the zero-field cooled data are denoted by circles (엯). The inset shows the magnetic hystersis loop for the same film.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Hall resistance, as a function of the magnetic field for at , showing an anomalous contribution due to charge carrier spin polarization. The inset shows the same but at .


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: High-temperature ferromagnetism in manganese-doped indium–tin oxide films