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(a) The , and (b) characteristics of -based OLEDs with different and without HILs.
Schematic energy level diagram for different ITO/HIL/HTL structures.
AFM images of (a) m-MTDATA, (b) 2T-NATA, (c) , and (d) thin films deposited on top of ITO glass. The measured average area roughness, , for m-MTDATA, 2T-NATA, , and were 5.2, 8.6, 20.2, and , respectively.
Typical DLTS signals for different HILs as a function of the temperature. DLTS measurements were performed with an equilibrium bias of , pulse voltage , and pulse width .
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