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Variation of the target voltage of (a) zirconium and (b) niobium target as a function of increasing (solid line) and decreasing (dashed line) oxygen flow for constant cathode currents. is the change in voltage. Curves (c) and (d) illustrate the evolution of deposition stress for zirconium and niobium oxide with the oxygen flow rates, respectively.
Variation of the deposition rates (data points) with total pressure for (a) titanium oxide, (b) hafnium oxide, (c) niobium oxide, and (d) molybdenum oxide. The dashed curves are simulations of the measured data using Keller–Simmons relation. The deviation of the rates from the simulation at low pressures shows backsputtering from the growing film.
A summary of the observed structure (a: amorphous, c: crystalline) of different transition metal oxides; the product, of pressure , and substrate-target distance ; the heat of oxide formation per metal atom, in eV; the value in eV, where denotes the metal ionization potential and denotes the oxygen electron affinity; cathode voltage in the oxidic mode and the film oxides deposition stress (MPa). The dashed line indicates that data are not available from our references.
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