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Schematic energy diagram of an interface between an organic and different top electrodes. The extraction current is independent of the workfunction of the top electrode.
characteristics under illumination of an photovoltaic devices, with , Ag, Au, and Pd as top electrodes (symbols).
Photocurrent vs effective applied voltage of an device for four different top electrodes (symbols), at . The solid line represent the numerical calculation, and the arrows indicates the short-circuit current densities and corresponding open-circuit voltages of these devices.
Experimental short-circuit current and the maximum output power as a function of (symbols) for four different electrodes at . The solid and dotted lines represents the numerical calculation for and , respectively.
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