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(a) A cross-section image of interface taken along direction. (b). Composite electron diffraction pattern taken at the interface consisting of the diffraction spots from the substrate and the film. The orientation relationship and lattice mismatch are indicated.
(a) High resolution images of the interface taken along . Steps are seen in the interface area. (b) An enlarged and optically filtered image showing a  dislocation with extra plane indicated by an arrow. (c) A Burgers circuit drawn in the interface, with the projected Burgers vector of the dislocation identified as . An extra lattice plane is found in the substrate.
(a) A -type dislocation in an film. (b) This type of  defect exists also along the boundary of two growing islands of different “height.” The length of each  fringe as shown by the pair of arrowheads corresponds to .
(a) A STEM image of the interface. (b) A typical EELS profile taken at the interface. These are the raw data without subtracting the background showing no peak. (c) Plot of B signal against distance, scanning crossing the interface. Intensity profiles of the B -edge, and TEM image across the interface.
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