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(Color) (a) Schematic cross section of a liquid-based variable lens in a cylindrical glass housing. The transparent electrodes are formed of -indium tin oxide, the insulator is a -parylene- layer, and the -hydrophobic top coating is a dipcoated fluoropolymer (AF1600, supplied by Dupont). The top and bottom glass plates are glued onto the glass cylinder with epoxy glue. (b) When a voltage is applied, charges accumulate in the wall electrode and opposite charges collect near the solid/liquid interface in the conducting liquid. The resulting electrostatic force effectively lowers the solid–liquid interfacial tension and with that the contact angle . (c)–(e) Video frames of a -diameter lens taken at voltages of , 100, and .
(a) Video frame showing an underdamped meniscus switching from curved to flat , a few milliseconds after a voltage step; (b) overdamped meniscus for identical conditions; (c) dimensionless damping time plotted vs the dimensionless lens parameter for lenses of various size and composition.
(Color) (a) Optical design of the camera module containing a liquid lens; (b) the assembled camera module and the liquid lens.
(Color) Frames taken from a video made with a VGA CMOS camera having (a) a fixed-focus lens and (b) a liquid lens focused at and (c) a liquid lens focused at .
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