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(a) Overall view of a mechanically polished graphite surface after ion bombardment. (b) Highly magnified SEM image of one of the largest cone clusters. Arrows A and B in (a) indicate a typical cone-cluster and the inter-cone-cluster surface, respectively.
Schematic representation of the dependence of sputtering yield on the incidence angle of ion beam . Inset: A model of cone formation based on the variation.
Typical SEM images of a C-coated Si surface after sputtering, taken at (a) low and (b) high magnifications. (b) In order to highlight the shape of CNFs, the image was taken at a boundary region of microspatula-like structures [arrow indicated in (a)] where CNFs were less densely distributed. (c) TEM image of a typical CNF-tipped cone grown on a C-coated nickel mesh.
characteristics of CNFs grown on graphite and surfaces. Inset: Corresponding FN plot.
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