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Scanning electron micrograph of a square array of inverted pyramids in (100) silicon. The scale bar is long.
Representative micrographs of the four major observed categories of dewetting on topography: (a) ordered arrays of one particle per pit with no extraneous particles, period narrow-mesa substrate with thick film; (b) ordered arrays of one particle per pit with particles on mesas, period wide-mesa substrate with thick film; (c) multiple particles form per pit with no ordering, period substrate topography with thick film; (d) film not interacting with topography, period wide-mesa substrate with thick film. The scale bar is long.
Schematic illustrations of as-deposited films: (a) conformal film of thickness indicating the curvature at the pit edge, , and at the inverted apex, . The film will evolve to minimize these local curvatures by atomic diffusion from to ; (b) schematic illustration of the crystallographic orientation of an as-deposited film on topography. The arrows indicate the (111) direction of each grain. Upon annealing, the grains on the pit walls will seed the particles, resulting in particles with their (100) directions normal to the plane of the substrate.
Effect of topography on particle orientation: (a) and (b) show (111) x-ray pole figures ; (a) for particles on a flat substrate and (b) for particles on a topographic substrate. Dark areas indicate a higher intensity, although the intensity scale is not the same between figures. The contrast in (a) has been enhanced for clarity of presentation. Data for angles greater than is not available due to equipment limitations; (c) and (d) schematically illustrate the particle orientation on flat and topographic substrates, respectively. The arrows correspond to relative crystallographic orientations.
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