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Topography (a and c) and corresponding surface potential or CPD images in cross section of a gate stack. The lower pair is at an enhanced magnification. Contrast scales: (a) and (b) and , respectively; (c) and (d), and .
Band diagrams and associated vacuum level and contact potential for an idealized gate stack (left) and one with a dipole across the oxide (right).
Topography (a) and potential profile (b) across gate stack region marked by the dashed lines at the bottom of Fig. 1. Curve (c) is a potential profile along the interface at a distance of into the poly-Si of Fig. 1(d).
Band diagram depicting the dipole-mediated decrease of the flatband voltage in .
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