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Configuration of phosphorescent OLED device with stepwise-doping profile in emitting layer (a) thick EML subregion adjacent to HTL∕EML interface was doped with 10%, followed by with 7% doping, and 4% at adjacent to EML∕BL interface (b) reversed sequence of doping concentration, 4%, 7%, and 10% from HTL∕EML interface.
Comparison of device characteristics: Luminance-voltage characteristics and power efficiency (lm∕W) for homogeneous and stepwise profile of doping ratio: (a) CBP: green devices and (b) CBP: red devices.
Relative position of HOMO and LUMO levels for the materials used for OLED fabrication. Using the evaporated thin films ( thickness each) onto ITO glasses, energies are measured by Riken–Keiki AC-2 and from lower-energy threshold of the electronic absorption spectra.
Dependence of current density on voltage for various doping concentrations of electrophosphorescent devices (a) CBP: green devices and (b) CBP: red devices.
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