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STL emission spectrum from CIS thin films at , , and . Acquisition . The effect of excitation density (electron-beam current ) on the CL spectrum is shown for comparison. Because the spectra are not shown to scale, the readout noise of the detector can be used for estimating the relative intensities.
Bias dependence of the photon intensity in CIS thin films, measured under the excitation provided by the STM: , . We identify a threshold at about . Below this, STL is excited by direct recombination of tunneling electrons. Above the threshold, STL results from electron-hole recombination. The points at and establish the noise level of these measurements.
(a) A constant current mode STM image and corresponding photon maps (raw data), which are acquired simultaneously while the tip is scanning the CIS surface: (b) , , . (c) , , . . , . The arrows on (c) correspond to the withdrawal of the STM tip during the scanning. (d) STL line scans at and obtained across the suspected grain boundaries at locations and , as indicated on the images.
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