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XRD patterns for the films sample and the films sample, showing both the films and films are crystalline—corresponding to and diffraction patterns, respectively.
Morphologies and structures of the prepared tungsten oxides films. (a) SEM image of films, showing small particles of the film. (b) SEM images of films, indicating disperse nanowires. (c) TEM image of a single nanowire, the inset image is the SAD pattern, respectively.
level XPS for the films (solid) and the films (dash), indicating valence state of films and mixed valence states of films.
PL spectra of the nanostructured crystalline thin films. (a) Emission spectra of the films (solid) and films (dash) on the substrate excited at 256 nm. (b) PL of the films excited at different wavelength: 256 nm (solid), 275 nm (dot), 309 nm (dash), and the emission spectra of the Si substrate (dash dot) excited at 256 nm (the intensity has been multiplied by 1.5).
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