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Plots of current density-voltage and luminance-voltage characteristics of various OLEDs listed in Table I.
Plots of current efficiency and power efficiency versus luminance of various OLEDs listed in Table I.
Plots of driving voltage and current efficiency versus doping concentration obtained from various OLEDs having structure C at a constant current .
Optical micrographs observed from various films with structures listed in Table II: (a-1) NPB film (sample a) as deposited. (a-2) NPB film (sample a) after being annealed. (b) doped NPB film (sample b) after being annealed. (c) Sample c after being annealed. (d) Sample d after being annealed. (e) Sample e after being annealed.
HIL and HTL structures for various OLEDs used in this work. For all devices, Alq was used as the bifunctional electron transport/emission layer, and bilayers were used as the cathode.
Structures of various thin films on ITO substrates used for thermal annealing experiment. The concentration is for all cases.
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