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(a) Schematic of glass∕FTO∕∕polymer∕Au solar cells; (b) chemical structure of the water-soluble polythiophene (sodium poly[2-(3-thienyl)-ethoxy-4-butylsulfonate]).
Linear curve in the fourth quadrant under AM1.5 illumination.
Absorption spectrum of the water-soluble polythiophene in the visible spectrum.
Energy band diagram relative to vacuum level for FTO∕∕PTEBS∕Au devices. The work functions of FTO, , and gold are 4.4 eV (Ref. 20), 4.2 eV (Ref. 10), and 5.2 eV (Ref. 19), respectively.
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