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Schematic of the experimental setup of near-field scanning microwave microscope with a tuning fork distance control system in liquid.
Amplitude of the tuning fork signal as a function of the driving frequency with the probe tip (a) in air, (b) with the probe tip at the water surface, (c) with the probe tip inserted into water, and (d) deepest insertion with tuning fork prongs halfway immersed. The inset shows the current amplitude of the tuning fork as a function of the tip-sample distance with the probe tip (a) in air and (c) at an immersion depth of . Curve (c) was rescaled to agree with (a) for large distances.
(Color) Topographic surface images of patterned copper film on silicon substrate (a) in air, (b) in water, without readjustment of the set point, and (c) in water with readjustment of the sample-tip distance set point. NSMM images (d) in air, (e) in water, without set point readjustment, and (f) with set point readjustment.
(Color) (a) Topographic surface image and (b) NSMM image of a film of DNA oligonucleotides obtained under water at an operation frequency with distance regulation. The location of the DNA thin film is marked by an arrow.
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