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(a) Schematic of an all-epitaxial VCSEL with a circular grating phase-shifting mesa. (b) Scanning electron micrograph image of a circular grating fabricated by electron-beam lithography.
Current vs voltage characteristics measured either for the mesa grating VCSEL (on the mesa grating) or a diameter etched post formed outside and electrically isolated from the mesa grating.
Light vs current characteristics measured for all-epitaxial VCSELs with a grating (solid curve) and single mesa (dashed curve).
Far-field radiation patterns measured at different current levels. Similar patterns are measured for the orthogonal direction: (a) shows the profile for a simple mesa, while (b) is for the device with a grating.
Spectral data measured for the grating confined VCSEL at the current levels of 2, 4, 7, and .
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