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(Color) Crystal structures of (a) plane and (b) plane of poly-PTS. The lattice constants of the crystal are , and . In the plane, one side of the PTS side groups is located under the other side. Thus, they are omitted in (a) for clarity. Hydrogen atoms are also omitted to avoid complexity.
(Color) FM-AFM images of the plane of the poly-PTS single crystal taken in water . (a) , scanning speed: . (b) and (c) , scanning speed: . (d) Cross-sectional plot measured along the black line PQ indicated in (c).
(Color) (a) Frequency shift-distance curve measured on the plane of the poly-PTS single crystal in water . (b) Force-distance curve derived from (a) using the method proposed by Giessibl (see Ref. 17). The black and red curves shown in (a) and (b) are measured in the approaching and retracting processes, respectively. Each curve was taken with a tip velocity of and approximately 1000 data points. (c)–(f) A series of FM-AFM images of the same sample taken with different frequency shifts . The frequency shifts used for the imaging were (c) , (d) , (e) , and (f) . Scanning speed was . The images were obtained immediately before taking the curves shown in (a).
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