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Conducting atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) setup for oxide stressing and breakdown diagnosis.
(a) Arrays of AFM oxide dots grown on a Si substrate. (b) curves recorded for -thick AFM oxide dots stressed under constant voltage of , 4.5, and , respectively. (c) Variation of recorded for 1.5-, 2.0-, and -thick AFM oxide dots after annealing for at elevated temperatures. Inset shows the plots of normalized vs annealing temperatures.
(a) AFM height image of one AFM oxide dot after BD. (b) and (c) Current images collected with tip bias for the oxide after BD. (d) and (e) Current images collected with tip bias for the same oxide dot as in (b) and (c). (f) Cross-sectional schematic showing the coexistence of hard BD (HBD) and soft BD (SBD) in oxide. The thickness of SBD spots, , may vary from site to site.
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