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The cross-sectional view of the liquid lens cell with (a) no focus effect with an aperture radius , (b) focus effect with an aperture radius .
The top view of the circular periphery seal similar to an iris diaphragm structure. The radius of the aperture is (a) , (b) , and (c) .
The simulated radius of the curvature and focal length as a function of the lens aperture size. The thickness of the rotatable impellers is 5.5 mm, , , and .
Imaging behavior of the liquid lens when the lever actuator is (a) at the neutral position and (b) rotated to shrink the aperture of the lens. The employed liquid is ethanol.
Relationship between the focal length and the radius of the lens aperture with a thin rotatable impeller. The triangles and solid line represent the experimental and theoretical results, respectively. The thickness of the lens , the maximum radius of the aperture , and the refractive index of the liquid .
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