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A schematic view of the experimental setup (a) and scanning electron microscopy pictures of metallic mask patterns with (b) 1 μm periodicity (scale bar 300 nm), and (c) 500 nm periodicity (scale bar 100 nm).
(Color online) FDTD simulation results of electric-field distribution in the photoresist with: (a) A gold mask and bare silicon substrate, (b) a gold mask and Ti shield on Si substrate, (c) a Ti mask and Ti shield on Si substrate, (d) FDTD simulation results of maximum absolute values of charge density distribution with a Ti mask and Ti shield. The illustration of EM fields is TM mode. The charge densities on the two sides of centerline have opposite signs.
AFM results of close view and cross section view of the photoresist patterns with (a) 1 μm periodicity and (b) 500 nm periodicity at using a Ti mask and Ti shield.
AFM pictures of photoresist patterns at different energy density and dosage with gold mask and Ti shield. Photoresist lines perpendicular to polarization with (a) 50 s at , (b) 1 min at , and (c) 3 min at .
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