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The anchoring strength vs the exposure time of the UV light. The photographs show Neel wall defects in the homogeneously aligned LC cell.
The theoretical relation between the anchoring strength and the twist angle (a solid line) to minimize the free energy in the TN LC cell. A broken line shows the transmittance in the cell between parallel polarizers.
Grey scale images in the LC cell between two polarizers. Angles between polarizers are 0°, 30°, and 90°, respectively in (a), (b), and (c).
Photograph of (a) the black and white negative film used as a photomask and (b) the printed image in the LC cell between parallel polarizers. Enlargement images of the eye are shown at the right side of each photograph
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