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Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) profiles of Si in as-grown gate dielectrics (comparable sputtering rates), illustrating the influence of the growth temperature and conditions on the segregation process. The difference of the sputtering rate between and is less than 10%. (a) the segregation depends on temperature and is stronger in than in ; (b) the segregation takes place mostly during growth.
Typical dependencies of the phase angle of the gate impedance on the ac frequency for as-deposited films. The measurement is based on the determination of the absolute value of the complex impedance and the corresponding phase angle between the ac voltage and current, , where is the quality factor and is the ac frequency. Deviation of from the ideal capacitive value means that there are losses due to leakage though the film: (a) films grown at low and high substrate temperatures. Low-temperature growth results in a significantly lower contribution of gate resistivity to ; (b) films grown on TiN compared to those grown on Si(001). The absence of Si significantly improves the dielectric.
Selected atomic structures associated with Si and dissolved in . Pr atoms are dark grey, O atoms are light grey, Si atoms are white and H atoms are black: (a) , Si substituting Pr and saturated with OH; (b) dissociated . The interstitial group is on the left, the substitutional group, i.e., H atom attached to lattice oxygen atom, is on the right; (c) interstitial .
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