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(a) Chemical structures and device architecture used in the current investigation; (b) highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy levels, respectively, for -NPD (Ref. 14) and (Ref. 15), work functions for Mg (Ref. 16), and the low conductivity PEDOT:PSS buffer layer (Ref. 14).
Current density versus applied bias characteristics for OPVs with the following layer structure: (170 nm) built on PEDOT:PSS/PES (a) or ITO/glass (b) substrates. Each characteristic represents the device under a different white-light (AM1.5) illumination intensity: (filled circles), (filled triangles), and (open diamonds).
Absorbance spectra in the range 300–800 nm for thin films of -NPD (dashed line) and (dotted line). The AM1.5 solar irradiance spectrum is included for comparison (solid line).
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