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Role of near-surface states in ohmic-Schottky conversion of Au contacts to ZnO
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

characteristics for remote plasma-exposed and unexposed E–P samples. (a) exposure of the surface produces a SB of with an ideality for the lower grade material. (b) The same transition occurs for a exposed sample of higher quality with a calculated SB height of and , however, a exposure indicates an ohmic behavior. (c) Higher-quality (0001) surfaces change from ohmic to rectifying after plasma treatment with SB and ideality.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

XPS results before and after 20% He plasma treatment (low grade E–P sample). (a) Plasma treatment removes the (deconvolved) OH peak and shifts the peak rigidly by , as well as the peak in (b), indicating -type band bending. (c) The peak disappears after plasma treatment, leaving only a Zn Auger shoulder, indicating removal of adsorbed carbon.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

CL spectra for treated and untreated E–P samples of a lower grade. (a) Relative CL intensity for the (green) emission, often attributed to oxygen vacancies, decreases with increasing electron-beam energy. All spectra are normalized to NBE. (b) The integrated peak intensity ratio (GD∕NBE) vs electron-beam energy indicates a factor of 2 increase in GD defect concentration within of the surface. After a exposure, the intensity decreases by 50%, indicating GD partial removal or passivation.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Photoluminescence spectra taken at in the bound exciton region for the polar ZnO high grade E–P surface. The line attributed to hydrogen as a shallow donor in ZnO is significantly reduced after a plasma exposure.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Role of near-surface states in ohmic-Schottky conversion of Au contacts to ZnO