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Sample images. (a) Transmission electron microscopy image of multiwalled carbon nanotubes used in the experiments. The image shows two nanotubes, the diameter of each is indicated with a double arrow. The wall thickness is estimated to be 5 nm. (b) Scanning electron microscopy image of the top (plan) view of ordered nanotube array used in experiments.
Nanoindentation of individual carbon nanotubes. (a) Schematic illustration of the experiment in which a Berkovich indenter with 100 nm tip radius vertically compresses a multiwalled carbon nanotube. (b) Schematic illustration of shell buckling in nanotubes. (c) An in situ scanning image of the sample surface obtained immediately after compressing a nanotube.
Representative load-displacement data from a loading-unloading cycle. (a) Displacement-controlled indent on a 100 nm long nanotube, (b) load-controlled indent on a 100 nm long nanotube, and (c) load-controlled indent on a 50 nm long nanotube. In all cases, buckling, evident by a distinct drop in slope, occurs between . The critical buckling load was repeatable to within between experiments.
Buckled nanotube images. (a) Schematic illustration of a radius sphere indenting the nanotubes. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of the top view of a population of compressed nanotubes. (c) A magnified view of the buckled nanotubes showing distorted cross sections and deformed and wrinkled sidewalls.
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