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SEM images of the ZnO nanorods on GaN: (a) top view with a 30° inclination from the surface normal and (b) cross-sectional view. The average ZnO nanorod diameter is with rod length of .
XRD patterns of ZnO nanorods on GaN (solid line). The pattern is typical for wurtzite hexagonal structure like bulk ZnO with unit cell constant of and . The ZnO nanorods exhibit preferential orientation in the  direction, consistent with the growth along the axis. The XRD pattern of GaN sample without ZnO growth was also shown (dotted line).
Room temperature microphotoluminescence (PL) spectrum obtained from as-grown ZnO nanorods (solid line). The PL spectrum of the GaN sample without ZnO growth (dotted line) was also displayed for comparison. The He–Cd laser line was used as a source of excitation.
High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) image obtained from the edge of an individual single crystal ZnO nanorod and its corresponding electron diffraction (ED) pattern (inset).
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