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Grazing-incidence XRD spectra for the as-prepared and annealed samples at 575 °C and 750 °C. For the as-prepared sample, the peaks corresponds to pure Ti. Metal-rich and are formed at 575 °C and 750 °C, respectively.
(a) SIMS depth profile of the as prepared sample showing the presence of native oxide marked by “a” and interface by “b”. (b) Depth profile of 575 °C annealed sample. Region “a” marks the dissolved oxygen in the Ti film. (c) Depth profile of 750 °C annealed sample showing the layers of (a) and (b).
Surface morphology of (a) 350 °C, (b) 450 °C, and (c) 750 °C annealed samples exhibiting columnar structure, agglomeration of the structures, and formation of ridges on heat treatment resulting in increasing surface roughness.
Current and topography images acquired simultaneously showing the contrast in current over the surface topography. A correlation between the current (a) and topography (b) can be seen as the current varies between the hills and valleys.
Root-mean-square value of the surface roughness as a function of annealing temperature shows a rapid increase beyond 500 °C. At this temperature, the onset of silicide formation take place in addition to the grain growth of the titanium oxide at the surface.
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