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superlattice composition spreads used to design a magnetoelectric material. The schematic of the composition spread. The thickness of each wedge is 12.6 nm corresponding to 15 unit cells of CFO. The average composition of the film is continuously varied from pure PTO (right) to pure CFO (left). The total thickness of 300 nm is constant across the spread. The boxed region near the composition of was found to be consisting of epitaxial PTO nanopancakes embedded in the CFO matrix.
Cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image (a), and diffraction (b), of region (incident of electron beam is of MgO).
Magnetic and dielectric properties of the spread at room temperature. (a) In plane (solid line) and out-of-plane (dotted line) remnant magnetization mapping obtained by a scanning SQUID microscope. The inset is a magnetic hysteresis (out-of-plane) of an individual sample. (b) Dielectric constant (left and dots) and nonlinear dielectric signal proportional to (right and open square) mapping obtained by a microwave microscope at 1 GHz as a function of average composition across the spread.
Structural changes across the spread. (a) X-ray microdiffraction of the -rich side of the spread sample. Upon introducing , the (200) and (002) reflections of the twined tetragonal are seen to continuously shift and eventually merge at . Inset shows the continuous shift in this phase transition temperature as a function of the composition across the spread.
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