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AFM surface morphology of (a) HfAlO oxide, (b) as-deposited W layer, and (c) W layer after RTA at 950 °C for 60 s (scanning area is ).
(a)–(f) Effects of annealing temperature and time on the formation of W-NCs using SEM surface morphology on HfAlO dielectric. (g) Evolution of density and average size of nanocrystals as a function of annealing temperature and time.
(a) SEM picture of W-NCs dots distribution. The inset is a cross-sectional TEM image of W-NC on . (b) Energy diffractive x-ray profiles on W-NCs and near the interface between dielectric and Si-substrate.
(a) Positive and negative shifts of hysteresis curves vs gate voltage and (b) typical high frequency (1 MHz) hysteresis curves obtained by stressing up to for and stack devices (S1: , S2: , and S3: ). The results are compared with the control devices without W-NCs.
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