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Experimental determination of kinetic parameters for crystallizing amorphous NiTi thin films
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Video-captured TEM bright-field images taken during in situ heating show crystallization in amorphous nickel-titanium films at . The first nuclei formed after at which the clock was started. Each image was taken after the onset of nucleation at (a) ; (b) ; (c) ; (d) ; (e) ; (f) ; (g) ; (h) ; and (i) . The illustration in (d) describes how the kinetic details such as the number of nuclei, the crystal size change, and transformed fraction were estimated.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) The nucleation rate, , as a function of time, exhibits a sigmoidal (or S-shaped) behavior and reaches its steady-state within (within approximately 15% of the total crystallization time of ). (b) A plot of crystal size (which is proportional to the growth rate) taken at different times exhibits a linear behavior indicating the growth rate is constant over time. The dashed line is a guide for the eye.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

JMAK plots for the crystallization of amorphous NiTi thin films. (a) A typical isothermal transformation curve based on the Avrami model taken by measuring the amount of area transformed as a function of time. (b) A plot of versus , which has a slope equal to the Avrami constant, . The diamonds correspond to the JMAK data converted from the plot in (a); the solid line is based on the nucleation and growth rates obtained from in situ TEM observation.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Experimental determination of kinetic parameters for crystallizing amorphous NiTi thin films