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Scanning electron image of PTO grains on a platinum substrate derived from a 1:5 diluted precursor solution.
(Color online) As-embedded PTO grains (left) and PTO grains in HSQ after a polishing time (right). The atomic force images (bottom) show the decrease of surface roughness as a result of the polishing step.
(Color online) PFM images demonstrating the gain of piezoelectric activity with increasing polishing time. The graph inset (bottom left) displays the expected surface fraction of polished PTO grains against the total layer thickness of HSQ, derived from statistical topographic information of the PTO islands.
(a) Current vs voltage plot of embedded PTO grains (solid) and of a pure HSQ layer of the same thickness (dashed); (b) curve of embedded PTO grains after compensation of leakage and dielectric capacitance contributions.
Equivalent circuit model for embedded grains of different heights in a dielectric layer.
Current response of embedded PTO grains on switching and nonswitching pulses. The pulse cycle applied is shown in the top left of the image.
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