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(a) Basic planar building block (two-ring resonator). The conductor pattern is shown in black. The resonator radius is defined as the distance from the center to the outer edge of the circular conductor trace. (b) Six-ring spherical resonator formed using three of the planar structures.
Electric field of the lowest order resonant mode in the eight-ring spherical resonator. The cross section is taken along a plane bisecting two of the conductor planes (the modal profile within the conductor planes is very similar, but contains strongly enhanced fields near the corners of the conductors). The gray scale represents the magnitude of the electric field.
Resonant frequency (left axis) and corresponding (right axis) for the two-ring and eight-ring resonators, vs gap size. Circles are for a trace width of , and diamonds are for a trace width of . Solid circles/lines are measured values; open circles with dashed lines are simulated values. No simulation was performed for the eight-ring, trace width sample.
Measured Chu factor vs for the two-, four-, and eight-ring resonators. Moving from planar to spherical structures, and increasing the number of rings, dramatically improves performance. In the eight-ring resonators, a Chu factor of 1.5 is achieved at the widest gap size, matching that of the negative permittivity sphere.
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