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Bright-field TEM images of the film, from center to periphery. In (a), the rutile polycrystal is imaged along the  direction. In (b), a nanocrystal of rutile can be identified, as indicated by the arrow. In (c), small anatase crystals are embedded in an amorphous matrix.
High-resolution TEM images of the fullerenelike cages on the surface of crystals observed in the central region of the film.
High-resolution TEM images of small aggregates of fullerenelike cages on the surface of crystals observed in the median region of the film.
(Color) Ball-and-stick computer models of , , molecules (analogue of , , and ). In (a)–(c), the arrangement of the Ti atoms (gray) is shown, with fictitious Ti–Ti bonds inserted to help visualizing the shape of the cages. The proposed structure of the fullerenoid oxides cages is shown in (d)–(f) (O atoms in red). The diameters of the model fullerenoids are about 1.77, 1.86, and (the polar diameter of the ellipsoidal cage is about ).
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