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Schematics of device configurations and the simulated corresponding LC director profiles. (a) Conventional single-sided structure; (b) double-sided structure in biasing configuration (A); (c) double-sided structure in biasing configuration (B).
Simulated phase modulations of the transmitted TE wave under the optimized biasing voltage for the single-sided and double-sided structures with LC layers of and , respectively.
Simulated phase modulations for double-sided structures in biasing configurations (A) and (B) with electrode misalignments of and , respectively.
Top view of the accurately aligned electrodes. Each plate has two groups of interdigited electrodes, each group being connected by a common lead. The frames are added for visual guide. The bottom plate is shifted toward the top of the picture to show the electrodes on the bottom plate, which have a less vivid green color than the ones on the top.
Measured values of the first order diffraction efficiencies of the conventional single-sided structure and the proposed double-sided structures, with and without electrode misalignments.
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